United Israel Appeal 2017

United Israel Appeal

As the end of the tax year come this week in Australia, we suggest your prayerfully consider giving a donation to support the people of Israel. 

The United Israel Appeal was originally established in 1948 establish by members of the Jewish community to serve the State of Israel. It is a non-political, not for profit humanitarian international fund-raising organisation with over 60 offices, in more than 40 countries throughout the world including, of course, Australia (based in Sydney).  

It supports a range of projects, works to further the national priorities of the State of Israel and Israeli society, with special emphasis on advancing weaker communities; nurturing disadvantaged and marginalized youth. You can see all the details on their web site: United Israel Appeal 

You can donate here (and, if you wish, select which area you wish your money to be directed to): United Israel Appeal – Donate Now!

Messianic Prophecy

messianic prophecy

The Tanakh is rich with messianic prophecy. Many passages link together as they speak across time and space of the coming Messiah and Messianic age. In this article we will examine a few of the key texts and see both the expectation these passages speak of and they find completion in the in person, work and life of Yeshua.

For the major passages below there is a very brief description (including reflections on rabbinic understandings of these texts) and some footnotes that link the reader to related passages and the reference to the same text or concept in the Brit Hadashah. 

This is, of course, a huge topic. This article is intended only as an introduction to this topic. 

Deuteronomy 18:15

Adonai your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from your midst—from your brothers. To him you must listen.

This is the most explicit Messianic prophecy found in the Torah. It occurs in the Torah portion Parshat Shoftim, which tells us that God will one day send a prophet (1)cf. John 6:14; 7:40-42 like Moses. It is also one of the two clear texts that identify Moshe (Moses) as a prophet in the Torah.(2)The other being Deuteronomy 34:10. Clearly he is also unlike any other known prophet as God speaks to him “face to face” (Numbers 12:6-8).  Therefore, Jewish expectation understood that the life and ministry of Moshe serve as a Messianic prototype which the Messiah was expected to reflect(3)Or maybe, in more classical theological language, Moshe is the ‘type’ and Yeshua is the anti-type. For a brief, further explanation of this model see this article on Type.  

Some of these are that both have birth narratives where they escaped death from a paranoid oppressor of the Jewish people.  Both were born as saviors at at a time of national bondage for Israel. Both served in the office of prophets, priests and leaders of Israel. Both taught Torah from a mountain.

Another parallel may be found in the deaths of Moses and Yeshua. Jewish midrash sees the death of Moses as required for the redemption of Israel – a prerequisite for the people to enter the promised land. One tradition about the death of Moses relates that the sun darkened at noon (the sixth hour) on the day Moses died. Another tells us that his time of death was at the time of Minchah (the evening sacrifice, typically during the 9th hour).  

Luke  describes, in his account of the Transfiguration, that Yeshua the topic of discussion in the miraculous meeting with Moshe [Moses] and Eliyahu [Elijah] is “…his exodus, which he was soon to accomplish in Yerushalayim [Jerusalem].”(4)Luke 9:31 (Complete Jewish Bible)  

Isaiah Chapters 9 to 11

Prophecies from the following chapters 9 and 11 of the book of Isaiah contain some of the most significant Messianic prophecies in the Tanakh as they focus on the birth and supernatural reign of the coming Davidic king (Messiah).

In the book of Matthew the author sees these prophecies apply to Yeshua as the promised one in Isaiah.(5)In Matthew 1:23 he quotes Isaiah 7:14; in 4:15-16 he quotes Isaiah 9:1-2[8:23-9:1]; and in 2:23 he makes reference to Isaiah 11:1 (the Hebrew word for “Nazarene” resembles the Hebrew word for “branch”). It is worth noting here that Matthew’s interpretive method is not what modern readers may expect as it reflects Jewish methods of interpretation of his times including literal and allegorical interpretations, plays on words and Midrashic allusions. For example, Matthew 2:23 seems to claim to be a literal reference, yet there is no exact word for word reference in the Tanakh. Ezra 9:10-12 provides an interesting parallel to Matthew 2:23. In both cases these are clearly not literal, word for word references from the “prophets” (note plural in both cases). Yet in both cases, it seems clear the writers were summarizing and paraphrasing the consistent message of God’s prophets. For further detail on this see, for example, Robert H. Gundry, The Use of the Old Testament in St. Matthew’s Gospel, with Special Reference to the Messianic Hope, Supplements to Novum Testamentum, vol. 18 (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1967); David H. Stern’s Jewish New Testament Commentary on Matthew (Jewish New Testament Publications, 1992); Craig S. Keener, A Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999). He understands these promises as predicting a worldwide, glorious reign Yeshua as the expected Davidic king, that was not yet fully realized.

Modern rabbinic teaching is that when King Messiah comes he will bring world-wide peace, this is not the teaching of Scripture. No explicit Scripture teaches this. Rather, Scripture presents a broader picture of the Messianic Age where the Messiah will ultimately bring a time of peace at the end (see Isaiah 2:1-5 – note that Messiah is not mentioned here as inaugurating this at his coming). Dr Michael L. Brown states:

Jewish tradition, however, has forgotten that this Davidic Messiah will be like David, both priestly and royal, while there are other significant biblical prophecies that speak of the Messiah’s sufferings and his atoning death on our behalf…The bottom line is this: The Messiah first came to make peace between God and man, bringing the hope of reconciliation and forgiveness to the world. The ultimate effects of his first coming will lead to his return and an era of complete peace on earth.(6)Michael L. Brown, “2.1. If Jesus is really the Messiah, why isn’t there peace on earth?” Answering Jewish Objections to Jesus – Answering Jewish Objections to Jesus – Volume 1  (Baker Book House, 2000)

So, the Brit Hadashah shows us that Yeshua fulfilled most the messianic prophecies but some, such as Isaiah 2:1-5 and Isaiah 11:1-9 which predict global peace, are still not completed. While the good news of Yeshua has indeed brought peace to both individuals and communities since His coming, clearly it is not universal.  It teaches that these will be completed in His second coming.

Isaiah 9:5-6(7)Isaiah 9:6-7 in many English versions

For to us a child is born,
    a son will be given to us,(8)cf. Isaiah 7:14, 11:1-2Luke 2:11; John 3:16.
and the government will be upon His shoulder.(9) cf. Isaiah 22:22  Matt. 28:18; 1 Cor. 15:24-25
His Name will be called
    Wonderful Counselor,(10) cf. Isaiah 28:29John 14:26; 15:26.
    Mighty God(11)cf. Deuteronomy 10:17; Isaiah 10:21
    My Father(12)cf. Isaiah 63:16; 64:7; John 14:9-10 of Eternity,
    Prince of Peace.(13)cf. Isaiah 26:3,12Luke 2:14; John 14:27.
Of the increase of His government
    and shalom(14)cf. Acts 10:36; Romans 5:1; Ephesians 2:14-17 there will be no end(15)cf. Daniel 2:44,3:33
on the throne of David(16)cf. 2 Samuel 7:12-16Matthew 1:19:27; 12:23; 5:22; 20:31Revelation 22:16 and over His kingdom—
    to establish it and uphold it
    through justice and righteousness(17)cf. Hebrews 1:8
    from now until forevermore.(18)cf. Luke 1:32-33.
The zeal of Adonai-Tzva’ot(19)the Lord of hosts
    will accomplish this.

Rabbi Yose the Galilean(20)a Jewish sage who lived in the 1st and 2nd centuries CE who was one of the Tannaim, the rabbis whose work was compiled in the Mishna said:

“The name of the Messiah is Peace, for it is said, Everlasting Father, Prince Peace (Isa. 9:5) . . .” R. Yose the Galilean said: “Great is peace, for in that hour in which King Messiah is revealed to Israel, he begins with peace, for it is said, How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of the messenger of good tidings who announceth peace (Isa. 52:7).”(21)Pereq Shalom, p. 101, cited in The Messiah Texts by Raphael Patai (Wayne State University Press, 1988) p. 21

Isaiah 11:1-4

1 Then a shoot will come forth out of the stem of Jesse,(22)cf. Matt. 1:1; Rev. 5:5
and a branch will bear fruit out of His roots.
The Ruach of Adonai(23)In the creation account, Genesis 1:2, it is stated that “the Spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters.” The ancient sages explained this to mean “the Spirit of the King Messiah,” with reference to Isaiah 11:2 (see Genesis Rabbah 2:4, among other places). will rest upon Him,(24)cf. Matthew 3:16; Mark 1:10; Luke 3:22
the Spirit of wisdom and insight,
the Spirit of counsel and might,
the Spirit of knowledge(25)cf. Matthew 13:54; Mark 6:2; Luke 2:47, 52; 4:14; 4:36; 5:17; 6:19; 24:45
    and of the fear of Adonai.
His delight will be in the fear of Adonai.(26)cf. Matt. 3:16
He will not judge by what His eyes see,
nor decide by what His ears hear.
But with righteousness He will judge the poor,
    and decide with fairness for the poor of the land.(27)cf. John 5:22-30
He will strike the land with the rod of His mouth,(28)cf. Rev. 19:11, 15 
    and with the breath of His lips He will slay the wicked.

Isaiah 53: 1-6

1 ‘Who has believed our report?(29)cf. John 12:38; Rom. 10:16.

To whom is the arm of Adonai revealed?
For He grew up before Him like a tender shoot,
    like a root out of dry ground.
He had no form or majesty that we should look at Him,
nor beauty that we should desire Him.
He was despised and rejected by men,
a man of sorrows, acquainted with grief,
One from whom people hide their faces.
He was despised, and we did not esteem Him.(30)cf. Mark 10:33,34Luke 18:31-33; John 1:10-11.
Surely He has borne our griefs(31)Or illnesses; cf. Matt. 8:17.
    and carried our pains.
Yet we esteemed Him stricken,
    struck by God, and afflicted.
But He was pierced(32)or wounded; cf. John 19:34-37; Rev. 1:7. because of our transgressions,(33)cf. Romans 4:25; 1 Corinthians 15:3
crushed because of our iniquities.
The chastisement for our shalom was upon Him,
and by His stripes we are healed.(34)cf. 1 Peter 2:24-25

We all like sheep have gone astray.
Each of us turned to his own way.
So Adonai has laid on Him the iniquity of us all.

Quotes here is a part of the broader prophecy sometimes called The Fourth Servant Song (Isaiah 52: 13-53:12). While some modern rabbis deny this passage speaks of Messiah, many of the sages clearly believed otherwise. For example Rabbi Moishe Al-Shekh (16th century CE) wrote of this passage: “Our Rabbis with one voice accept and affirm the opinion that the prophet is speaking of the King Messiah, and we shall ourselves also adhere to the same view.” A few centuries earlier, Rabbi Levi Ben Gershon 14th century CE) identified the prophet of Deuteronomy 18 (above) as Messiah linking the same to this passage stating:

“A Prophet from the midst of thee.” In fact, the Messiah is such a Prophet as it is stated in the Midrash of the verse, “Behold my Servant shall prosper” (Is. 52.13)…. Moses, by the miracles which he wrought, brought a single nation to the worship of God, but the Messiah will draw all peoples to the worship of God.’… “

Jeremiah 31:31-34 (31:30-33 in some versions)

30 “Behold, days are coming”
—it is a declaration of Adonai
“when I will make a new covenant(35)cf. Matthew 26:28; Mark 14:24Luke 22:20; 1 Corinthians 11:25; 2 Corinthians 3:6Heb. 8:8-12; 9:15 10:16-17.
with the house of Israel
and with the house of Judah—
31 not like the covenant
I made with their fathers
in the day I took them by the hand
to bring them out of the land of Egypt.
For they broke My covenant,
though I was a husband to them.”
it is a declaration of Adonai.
32 “But this is the covenant I will make with the house of Israel after those days”
—it is a declaration of Adonai
“I will put My Torah within them.
Yes, I will write it on their heart.(36)cf. 2 Cor. 3:3; Heb. 10:16.
I will be their God
and they will be My people.
33 No longer will each teach his neighbor
or each his brother, saying: ‘Know Adonai,’
for they will all know Me,
from the least of them to the greatest.”
it is a declaration of Adonai.
“For I will forgive their iniquity,
their sin I will remember no more.”

This passage connects the idea that the Messiah – a prophet greater than Moshe (see Deuteronomy 18:15 above) –  will also bring in a new covenant with the Jewish people (“ house of Israel and with the house of Judah”).  The ancient rabbis commenting on Jeremiah 31:31-32 understood exactly this:

“When the time of the advent of the Messiah will be near, then the blessed God will say to him: ‘With him I will make a new covenant. And this is the time I will acknowledge Him as my son, saying `This day have I begotten thee.`’”(37)Midrash Tehelim 3:4

Indeed, this rabbi also noted that the Messiah would be, in some special sense, God’s own son. Another ancient rabbinical commentary on Jeremiah 31:31-32 stated: “He will sit and expound the new Torah which He will give through the Messiah.”(38)Midrash Talpiyot 58a

Daniel 7:13-14

In the Talmud, it is taught (based on the images in this passage) that the Messiah will be a heavenly figure who will be served and worshiped by all peoples and nations from his throne in the heavens.

The Talmud (Sanhedrin 98a) asks the often taught question (and basis of many stories):

Will the Messiah, the son of David, come with the clouds of heaven, as indicated in Daniel 7:13-14, or will he come riding on a donkey, as written in Zechariah 9:9?

The answer it gives is that if the Jewish people are worthy then he will come in the clouds, otherwise he will come riding on a donkey. Lovely sentiment, but the facts of the matter are that the Tanakh does not actually present these as alternative options, let alone ones based on some earthly trigger. 

Rather, Scripture here builds on the teachings we have seen in the above passages in presenting another revelation (prophecy) about the coming Messiah.

Some Additional Messianic Passages

 

Be the “seed of the woman that would “bruise ” the serpent’s “heel”

Genesis 3:15 Galatians 4:4 1 John 3:8

Be the “seed of Abraham”

Genesis 12:3 Matthew 1:1 Acts 3:25; Acts 18:18-22; Galatians 3:16

Be the “seed of Isaac”

Genesis 17:19; Genesis 21:12 ; Matthew 1:2 ; Luke 3:34 ; Hebrews 11:17-19

Be the “seed of Jacob” and the “star out of Jacob” who will “have dominion”

Genesis 28:14; Numbers 24:17,19 ; Matthew 1:2 ; Luke 3:34 ; Revelation 22:16

Be a descendant of Judah

Genesis 49:10 ; Matthew 1:2-3 ; Luke 3:33 ; Hebrews 7:14

Be a descendant of David and heir to his throne

2 Samuel 7:12-13 ; Isaiah 9:6-7 ; Isaiah 11:1-5 ; Jeremiah 23:5 ;

Matthew 1:1,6 ; Acts 11:23 ; Romans 1:4

Have eternal existence

Micah 5:1(2) ; John 1:1-14 ; John 8:58 ; Colossians 1:15-19 ; Ephesians 1:3-14 ; Revelation 5:11

Be the Son of God

Psalm 2:7 ; Proverbs 30:4 ; Matthew 3:17 ; Luke 1:32

Have God’s own name, YHVH (Adonai) applied to him

Isaiah 9:5-6(6-7) ; Jeremiah 23:5-6 ; Romans 10:9 ; Philippians 2:9-11

Come at a specific time, 483 years after the rebuilding of the wall of Jerusalem

Daniel 9:24-26 ; Matthew 2:1; Matthew 2:16 ; Matthew 2:19 ; Luke 3:1 ; Luke 3:23

Be born in Bethlehem, in Judah

Micah 5:1(2) ; Matthew 2:1; Luke 2:4-7

Be born of a virgin

Isaiah 7:14 ; Matthew 1:18-2:1 ; Luke 1:26-35

Be adored by great persons

Psalm 72:10-11 ; Matthew 2:1-11

Be preceded by one who would announce him

Isaiah 40:3-5 ; Malachi 3:1 ; Matthew 3:1-3 ; Luke 1:17 ; Luke 3:2-6

Be anointed with the Spirit of God

Psalm 45:8(7) ; Isaiah 11:2 , Isaiah 61:1 ; Matthew 3:16 ; John 3:34 ; Acts 10:38

Be a prophet like Moses

Deuteronomy 18:15 -18 ; Acts 3:20-22

Have a ministry of binding up the broken-hearted, proclaiming liberty to the captives and announcing the acceptable year of the Lord

Isaiah 61:1-2 ; Luke 4:18-19

Have a ministry of healing the Gospels

Isaiah 35:5-6 ; Isaiah 42:18 ; Matthew 11:5

Have a ministry in the Galilee

Isaiah 8:23-9:1(9:1-2) ; Matthew 4:12-16

Be tender and compassionate

Isaiah 40:11 ; Isaiah 42:3 ; Matthew 12:15,20 ; Hebrews 4:15

Be meek and unpretentious

Isaiah 42:2 ; Matthew 12:15-16,19

Be sinless and without guile

Isaiah 53:9 ; 1 Peter 2:22

Bear the reproaches due others

Psalm 69:10 ; Isaiah 53:12 ; Romans 15:3

Be a priest

Psalm 110:4 ; Hebrews 5:5-6 ; Hebrews 6:20 ; Hebrews 7:15-17

Enter publicly into Jerusalem on a donkey

Zechariah 9:9 ; Matthew 21:1-11 ; Mark 11:1-11

Enter the Temple with authority

Haggai 2:7-9 ; Malachi 3:1 ; Matthew 21:12-24 ; Luke 2:27-38 ; Luke 2:45-50 ; John 2:13-22

Be hated without cause

Psalm 69:5(4) ; Isaiah 49:7 ; John 7:48 ; John 15:24-25

Be undesired and rejected by his own people

Psalm 69:9(8) ; Isaiah 53:2 ; Isaiah 63:3 ; Mark 6:3 ; Luke 9:58 ; John 1:11 ; John 7:3-5

Be rejected by the Jewish leadership

Psalm 118:22 ; Matthew 21:42 ; John 7:48

Be plotted against by Jews and Gentiles together

Psalm 2:1-2 ; Acts 4:27

Be betrayed by a friend

Psalm 41:9 ; Matthew 26:21-50 ; John 13:18-21 ; Acts 1:16-18

Be sold for 30 pieces of silver

Zechariah 11:12 ; Matthew 26:15

Have his price given for a potters field

Zechariah 11:13 ; Matthew 27:7

Be forsaken by his disciples

Zechariah 13:7 ; Matthew 26:31,56

Be struck on the cheek

Micah 5:1 ; Matthew 27:30

Be spat on

Isaiah 50:6 ; Matthew 26:67 ; Matthew 27:30

Be mocked

Psalm 22:8-9(7-8) ; Matthew 27:31 ; Matthew 27:39-44 ; Matthew 27:67-68

Be beaten

Isaiah 50:6 ; Matthew 26:67 ; Matthew 27:26-30

Be executed by crucifixion, by having his hands and feet pierced

Psalm 22:17(16) ; Zechariah 12:10 ; Matthew 27:35 ; Luke 24:39

John 9:18 ; John 9:34-37 ; John 20:35 ; Revelation 1:7

Be thirsty during his execution

Psalm 22:16(15) ; John 19:28

Be given vinegar to quench that thirst

Psalm 69:22(21) ; Matthew 27:34

Be executed without having a bone broken

Exodus 12:46 ; Psalm 24:31(20) ; John 19:33-36

Be considered a transgressor

Isaiah 53:12 ; Matthew 27:38

Be “cut off, but not for himself”

Daniel 9:24-26 ; Matthew 2:1 ; Luke 3:1,23

Be the one whose death would atone for the sins of mankind

Isaiah 53:5-7,12 ; Mark 10:45 ; John 1:29 ; John 3:16 ; Acts 8:30-35

Be buried with the rich when dead

Isaiah 53:9 ; Matthew 27:57-60

Be raised from the dead

Psalm 2:7 ; Psalm 16:10 ; Isaiah 53:9-10 ; Matthew 28:1-20 ; Acts 2:23-36 ; Acts 13:33-37 ; 1 Corinthians 15:4-6

Ascend to the right hand of God

Psalm 16:11; Psalm 68:19(18) ; Psalm 110:1 ; Luke 24:51 ; Acts 1:9-11 ; Acts 7:55 ; Hebrews 1:3

Exercise his priestly office in heaven

Zechariah 6:1 ; Romans 8:34 ; Hebrews 7:25-8:2

Be the cornerstone of God’s Messianic Believing Community

Psalm 118:22-23 ; Isaiah 28:16 ; Matthew 21:42 ; Ephesians 2:20 ; 1 Peter 2:5-7

Be sought after by Gentiles as well as Jews

Isaiah 11:10 ; Isaiah 42:1 ; Acts 10:45

Be accepted by the Gentiles

Isaiah 11:10 ; Isaiah 42:1-4 ; Isaiah 49:1-12 ; Matthew 12:21 ; Romans 15:10

References   [ + ]

1. cf. John 6:14; 7:40-42
2. The other being Deuteronomy 34:10. Clearly he is also unlike any other known prophet as God speaks to him “face to face” (Numbers 12:6-8).
3. Or maybe, in more classical theological language, Moshe is the ‘type’ and Yeshua is the anti-type. For a brief, further explanation of this model see this article on Type.
4. Luke 9:31 (Complete Jewish Bible)
5. In Matthew 1:23 he quotes Isaiah 7:14; in 4:15-16 he quotes Isaiah 9:1-2[8:23-9:1]; and in 2:23 he makes reference to Isaiah 11:1 (the Hebrew word for “Nazarene” resembles the Hebrew word for “branch”). It is worth noting here that Matthew’s interpretive method is not what modern readers may expect as it reflects Jewish methods of interpretation of his times including literal and allegorical interpretations, plays on words and Midrashic allusions. For example, Matthew 2:23 seems to claim to be a literal reference, yet there is no exact word for word reference in the Tanakh. Ezra 9:10-12 provides an interesting parallel to Matthew 2:23. In both cases these are clearly not literal, word for word references from the “prophets” (note plural in both cases). Yet in both cases, it seems clear the writers were summarizing and paraphrasing the consistent message of God’s prophets. For further detail on this see, for example, Robert H. Gundry, The Use of the Old Testament in St. Matthew’s Gospel, with Special Reference to the Messianic Hope, Supplements to Novum Testamentum, vol. 18 (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1967); David H. Stern’s Jewish New Testament Commentary on Matthew (Jewish New Testament Publications, 1992); Craig S. Keener, A Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999).
6. Michael L. Brown, “2.1. If Jesus is really the Messiah, why isn’t there peace on earth?” Answering Jewish Objections to Jesus – Answering Jewish Objections to Jesus – Volume 1  (Baker Book House, 2000)
7. Isaiah 9:6-7 in many English versions
8. cf. Isaiah 7:14, 11:1-2Luke 2:11; John 3:16.
9. cf. Isaiah 22:22  Matt. 28:18; 1 Cor. 15:24-25
10. cf. Isaiah 28:29John 14:26; 15:26.
11. cf. Deuteronomy 10:17; Isaiah 10:21
12. cf. Isaiah 63:16; 64:7; John 14:9-10
13. cf. Isaiah 26:3,12Luke 2:14; John 14:27.
14. cf. Acts 10:36; Romans 5:1; Ephesians 2:14-17
15. cf. Daniel 2:44,3:33
16. cf. 2 Samuel 7:12-16Matthew 1:19:27; 12:23; 5:22; 20:31Revelation 22:16
17. cf. Hebrews 1:8
18. cf. Luke 1:32-33.
19. the Lord of hosts
20. a Jewish sage who lived in the 1st and 2nd centuries CE who was one of the Tannaim, the rabbis whose work was compiled in the Mishna
21. Pereq Shalom, p. 101, cited in The Messiah Texts by Raphael Patai (Wayne State University Press, 1988) p. 21
22. cf. Matt. 1:1; Rev. 5:5
23. In the creation account, Genesis 1:2, it is stated that “the Spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters.” The ancient sages explained this to mean “the Spirit of the King Messiah,” with reference to Isaiah 11:2 (see Genesis Rabbah 2:4, among other places).
24. cf. Matthew 3:16; Mark 1:10; Luke 3:22
25. cf. Matthew 13:54; Mark 6:2; Luke 2:47, 52; 4:14; 4:36; 5:17; 6:19; 24:45
26. cf. Matt. 3:16
27. cf. John 5:22-30
28. cf. Rev. 19:11, 15 
29. cf. John 12:38; Rom. 10:16.
30. cf. Mark 10:33,34Luke 18:31-33; John 1:10-11.
31. Or illnesses; cf. Matt. 8:17.
32. or wounded; cf. John 19:34-37; Rev. 1:7.
33. cf. Romans 4:25; 1 Corinthians 15:3
34. cf. 1 Peter 2:24-25
35. cf. Matthew 26:28; Mark 14:24Luke 22:20; 1 Corinthians 11:25; 2 Corinthians 3:6Heb. 8:8-12; 9:15 10:16-17.
36. cf. 2 Cor. 3:3; Heb. 10:16.
37. Midrash Tehelim 3:4
38. Midrash Talpiyot 58a